El abordaje puede acaecer entre dos embarcaciones, cualquiera que sea su clase o tamaño, por acercamiento, encuentro o choque más o menos violento de una a otra embarcación, pero siempre sobre la base de hallarse las dos naves separadas, independientes una de la otra, con libertad de movimientos, nunca ligadas entre sí y con relación de cierta dependencia de cualquiera de ellas con relación a la otra.
"General Average" is a marine insurance concept of sharing loss. A classic example is cargo thrown overboard in order to save the ship and the remaining cargo. General average is a loss "Loss is really the meaning of the word term 'Average," involving 1) a common danger of imminent peril, and 2) a voluntary sacrifice of cargo which is 3) successful in avoiding a peril. In Sea-Land Service, Inc. V. Aetna Insurance Co., the second Circuit traced general average back to its ancient origins and explained it as: "one who partakes in a maritime venture incurres loss for the common benefit, it should be shared ratably by all who participate in the venture." The Court further noted that most bills of laden provide for adjustment of general average by the York-Antwerp Rules which define a general average act and allow for losses which are a direct consequence of that act.
Barratry comprises a loss that results from mariners including: every species of fraud and knavery intentionally committed by master or mariners with the intention of benefiting themselves at the expense of their owners, and any gross malversation, or criminal negligence by whatever motive whereby the owners or the charterers of the ship are in fact damnified. Fraudulent or grossly negligent conduct by a master or crew that is prejudicial to a shipowner. "Blacks" Barratry is usually covered as a named peril in H&M policies.
La ley inglesa de seguros marítimos trata de que el asegurador será responsable por los daños o pérdidas cuya causa próxima sea un riesgo cubierto por la póliza de seguros, en consecuencia es fundamental que, como peritos de seguros, nuestro reporte contenga la mención a la causa próxima del siniestro, así como los distintos factores que pudieron haber contribuido con el accidente, de modo tal que los ajustadores o aseguradores tengan el completo conocimiento del tema y puedan aplicar la cobertura, o no, así como determinar o señalar a los responsables.
Extraído de un diccionario en español:
Es la causa directa de la pérdida o daño al objeto asegurado, si bien no tiene por que ser necesariamente la causa más cercana en el tiempo.
Es la causa o serie de causas que desencadenan un acto dañoso, siendo la más lejana de las causas que finalmente produce una pérdida o daño.
CAUSA INTERVINIENTE INTERMEDIA:
Los peritos deberían identificar una causa intermedia, es decir cualquier interrupción en la cadena de acontecimientos que circundan el siniestro que haya actuado en el incremento de los costos de reparación. Por ejemplo, dicha causa intermedia podría hallarse donde la tripulación trató una reparación temporal la cual se averió posteriormente. Asimismo las causas intermedias podrían suceder en el curso del proceso de reparación, donde un cigüeñal al estarse reparando mediante nuevo pulido sufre daño irreparable debido a errores.
n. un hecho que ocurre entre la acción original incorrecta o peligrosa y el daño en sí. Por lo tanto, la "conexión causal" entre lo incorrecto y los daños es quebrada por la causa intermedia. Esta es una situación "pero por" donde la intervención resulta ser la verdadera razón por la cual el daño ocurrió. El resultado es que la persona que desató la cadena de acontecimientos ya no es la responsable y no se le hallará responsable por los daños hacia la persona afectada. Por ejemplo: Federico Fueguero en forma negligente causa un incendio incontrolable al hacer trabajos de soldadura en su compresora de heno cerca de una pila de almiar, el heno prendió fuego y éste empezó a propagarse hacia la hacienda contigua. Sin embargo, apenas los bomberos habían casi contenido el fuego el Sr. Gastón Gasolinero pasa con su camión de gasolina por la línea de fuego haciendo caso omiso de las órdenes del bombero y se detiene en la pista entre la propiedad de Fueguero y Ricardo Ranchero. Las chispas de fuego causan que el camión del Sr. Gasolinero explosione, lo cual hace que el fuego se dirija a los graneros y la casa de Ranchero incendiándola. La negligencia de Gasolinero es una causa intermedia la cual libró de responsabilidad a Fueguero. A veces a esto se le llama una causa sobreviniente o reemplazante.
n. la misma que una "causa sobreviniente" o "causa reemplazante" la cual es un hecho que ocurre después del acto inicial que conduce al accidente y considerablemente causa el accidente. La causa reemplazante libera de responsabilidad a la parte cuyo acto empezó la serie de eventos que llevó al accidente, ya que la negligencia original no es más la causa próxima.
Extraído de un diccionario en inglés:
La causa más cercana; la causa inmediata o final del accidente o daño. La causa próxima surge solamente cuando una sucesión de incidentes contribuye a una pérdida o daño.
La causa más lejana o la primera en una serie de incidentes que origina una pérdida.
La causa real o verdadera. En una sucesión de incidentes que contribuye a una pérdida o daño, la influencia combinada de todos incidentes es considerada como la causa real o verdadera.
"Warehouse to warehouse clauses" are usually included in the marine extensions clauses that can be added to cargo policies. Under basic warehouse to warehouse cargo policies the insurance attaches from the time the goods leave the warehouse/ location named in the policy, for the commencement of the transit, including customary transportation and transshipment "Trucks," until the goods are delivered to the final warehouse named in the policy. Under some warehouse to warehouse policies the insurers will provide maximum time limits of coverage by express intention in the contract.
A "bill of lading" is document of title acknowledging the receipt of goods by a carrier or by the shippers agent. An "order bill of laden" is a negotiable bill of lading stating that the goods are consigned to the order of the person named in the bill. A "straight bill of lading" is a nonnegotiable bill of lading that specifies the consignee to whom the carrier is contractually obligated to deliver.
A defect has been said to be latent when it cannot be discovered by a person of competent Skill using ordinary care. The words "latent defect" as ordinarily understood apply to something existing at the time the vessel or other vehicle was constructed, and such as was not discovered and might not be discovered by ordinary methods of examination. The Carib Prince, 63 Fed. Rep. 267 A latent defect within the meaning of the Inchmaree clauses is any defect which has not resulted form wear and tear and which cannot be discovered by a diligent assured by the use of the methods available to him. Tulane Law Review, Vol. Xli, p. 337 A flaw in welding existing at the commencement of the voyage and not discoverable with the exercise of due care. The Rover, 33 Fed. Rep. 515
"Excess insurance" is cheap liability insurance that acts as an "Umbrella policy" which gives overhead protection. This excess insurance only gets reached when primary policy has been exhausted. This type of insurance is very much determined by the clear language of the policy, because most excess insurance is written on a following form that adds on to the first primary contract. Thus the excess insurance usually follows the form and exclusions of the primary policy. Most excess insurance is written to exclude drop down coverage if primary insurer becomes insolvent. The law states that the primary insurer owes a duty to the excess insurer to act in good faith, and to act as a prudent uninsured would.
Se consideran casos fortuitos o de fuerza mayor, los hechos que no han podido preverse, o que previstos, no han podido evitarse.
Los casos fortuitos consisten en hechos producidos por la naturaleza, tales como: lluvias torrenciales, granizadas, nevadas, sismos, incendios, huaycos, o cualquier otro tipo de siniestros originados por accidentes o desastres naturales, etc.
Los casos de fuerza mayor son los hechos generados por el hombre, tales como las huelgas en aeropuertos y en compañías de transportes, la cancelación de los vuelos, los accidentes colectivos de equipos, las guerras, los actos de sabotaje y de terrorismo, etc.
· Un acontecimiento que resulta de causas naturales sin intervención humana y que no se puede evitar con atención o previsión razonable (por ejemplo inundaciones, rayos, terremotos, huracanes).
· Un hecho inevitable, impredecible e incontrolable. Tienen que darse las tres condiciones Para que se considere hecho de fuerza mayor.
The information received from Lloyds agents and other sources which at one time was passed from underwriter to underwriter at Lloyd's coffee shop now appears as the Lloyd's List, which is a "news" paper produced externally to Lloyd's that specializes in marine insurance. The Lloyd's list is used to tell arrivals and departures of vessels, and now has evolved into news and energy prices. The Lloyd's List has been a printed news paper science 1734. The cost is about $1700 a year for the paper, and with the website it is $2700 a year. The Lloyds shipping index now is responsible for listing where a ship is located.
The Lloyd's Open Form "LOF" is an internationally recognized standard salvage agreement that is carried on the bridge of virtually every vessel in the world. The updated and improved version "Which was launched on Friday 1 September 2000" marks its tenth revision since Lloyd's of London first devised the contract in 1908. The new version of the form has been shortened from six pages to just two by removing most of the legal and procedural information and placing it in a separate reference document. The language used has also been simplified to take account of the increasingly international nature of ships' crews. The form was created by Lloyd's in order to save a ship's master from having to take part in time consuming contract negotiations while the vessel was in jeopardy. The LOF has been based on a "No Cure No Pay" relationship between the salvor and the shipowner. Agreement on the use of the contract means that all parties know exactly what terms are being signed, so that salvage services can commence with a minimum of delay. The form also provides a framework for the collection of security to protect a salvor's claim and arbitration machinery in the event that salvors and the owners of the vessel cannot agree on the payment for successful services. Although Lloyd's plays no part in the arbitration, it retains the services of a panel of experienced arbitrators to hear cases arising under the form.
"Maintenance" is a per diem payment intended as a living allowance. The purpose is to provide subsistence and lodging, not as a compensation for injury or damage. This amount should relate to food and lodging expenses of the local that the injured seamen is residing. "Cure" is the payment is medical expenses. Both maintenance and cure are to be paid by the ship owner until such point as the injured seamen reaches "maximum cure." "Maintenance and cure" are said to be an ancient duty of the shipowner to provide aid to seamen that become ill or injured while in the service of the ship. This implicit relationship between the seamen and their employer are without regard to negligence and unseaworthiness. The only exception to this duty is the willful misconduct of the seamen. Maintenance and cure has arisen in law and practice to encourage marine commerce, while at the same time protecting seamen form the unique hazards of their work and the unscrupulous actions of shipowners.
The Marine Insurance Act of 1906 was passed by Parliament to codify the law relating to marine insurance as practiced in England. Section 1 of that Act defines a contract of marine insurance as a contract whereby the insurance undertakes to indemnify the assured, in a manner and to the extend thereby agreed against marine loss.
Syndicates are groups of underwriters that get together to form their own "clubs" that specialize in one type of insurance at Lloyd's. These syndicates are often "Groups of Names," with great underwriting capacity. They can write motor, non-marine, aviation, marine, but often specialize in one area. A marine syndicate will therefore specialize in writing marine insurance.
In the absence of fraud, a fact concealed or misrepresented will not void the insurance policy unless it is material. The test of materiality is whether the fact would have influenced the underwriter as to whether to accept the risk or as to the premium to be charge for such risk. This misrepresentation or concealment need not bear directly upon the risk or the premium to be declared material. The question if the act of misrepresentation or omission is material by influencing the underwriters judgment is a question for the jury "or the Court in the absence of jury." King v. Alstate There are reciprocal duties to act in good faith by both parties. There is an obligation to disclose to the underwriters and insurers all details that deal with risk. This is true whether this information is asked or not. This is 20 X 20 hindsight test whereby a misrepresentation concealment, breach, or conditions, will not be a basis to avoid the policy unless 1 of 3 things is believed to be the result of the truth. 1 would not have insured the risk 2 would not have insured the risk at the premium 3 or would not have insured under the same terms.
It is a general rule in the United States, that if a vessel or goods insured are damaged to more than half of the value, by a peril insured against, or more than half of the freight is lost the assured may abandon and recover for a total loss. This legal formula as described by Phillips is not applicable to underwriters, who will most certainly stipulate in their hull and machinery policies that there will be no recovery for a constructive total loss unless the expense of recovering and repairing the vessel exceeds the insured value. Moreover the assured must give notice of the abandonment to his underwriters within a reasonable time after receipt of reliable information of the loss. Thus the recent American Hull Clauses state: There shall be no recovery for a constructive total loss hereunder unless the expense of recovering and repairing the vessel would exceed the agreed value. In making this determination, only expenses incurred by reason of a single accident or sequence of damages arising form the same accident shall be taken into account.
Robbery, kidnapping, or other criminal violence committed at sea. A similar crime committed aboard a plane or other vehicle; hijacking. The unauthorized and illegal reproduction or distribution of materials protected by copywrite, patent, or trademark law.
En el seguro marítimo se entiende por riesgos de mar los que corren las cosas aseguradas por tempestad, naufragio, varamiento con rotura o sin ella, abordaje fortuito, cambio forzado de ruta, de viaje o de nave, echazón, fuego, apresamiento, saqueo, declaración de guerra, retención por orden de algún gobierno, represalias y, generalmente, todos los casos fortuitos que ocurran en el mar, salvo lo exceptuado literalmente en la póliza.
The term "Perils of the sea" is defined in the Marine Insurance Act as the fortuitous accident or casualties of the seas, and not the ordinary action of wind and waves. (Rule for Construction of Policy, No. 7). This part of the act was based on Thomas Wilson v. The Xantho (12 App. Cas. 503), and later followed and expanded in Freedman& Slater v. M.V. Tofevo, (1963 A.M.C. 1525) where the Court quoted the following form Giulia (218 Fed. 744): "Perils of the sea' are understood to mean those perils which are peculiar to the sea and which are of an extraordinary nature, or arise from irresistible force or overwhelming power, and which cannot be guarded against by ordinary exertion of known skill and prudence." Collision between vessels is sometimes included as perils of the sea, but is usually defined and expressed in the "collision clause." There is also a presumption that a vessel that is lost without a trace is to be presumed to be lost through some peril of the sea.
Seaworthiness under American law is an "absolute, non-delegable, and continuing" duty of the shipowner to provide a vessel that is seaworthy to the passengers and crew. The standard of seaworthiness is not perfection, but reasonable fitness: not a ship that will weather every conceivable storm or withstand every imaginable peril of the sea, but a vessel reasonably suitable for her intended service. This is a duty on the part of the shipowner to furnish a vessel appurtenances, and crew which are reasonably fit for use. Seaworthiness can best be defined by looking to see what Courts have considered unseaworthy. There is a substantial amount of case law that has defined what has in fact made the vessel or her crew unseaworthy.
The sue and labor clause written into many Hull policies makes the assurer liable, in addition to his liability for loss or damages to the vessel, for expenses reasonably incurred by the assured in attempting to recover or preserve the insured property. Sue and labor charges arise when the assured, his servants, factors, or assigns incur expenditure to minimize or avert a loss which has occurred or is threatened. The loss minimized or averted must be one for which the underwriters are liable, and must arise out of the basic perils insured against and not be due to those perils especially covered by the collision clause. Munson v. Standard Marine Ins. Co., 156 Fed. Rep 44.
In 1920, the United States Congress passed the Jones Act which permitted a seamen injured in the course of his employment by the negligence of the shipowner, master, or fellow crew members to recover damages for his injuries. Prior to the Jones act proximate cause of any injury was relevant. The Congress abolished contributory negligence as a defense under the Jones act. As this act is very pro labor rights, Longshoremen where also held to be "seamen" and covered under the Jones Act as well. Seas Shipping Co. v. Sieracki, 328 U.S. 85. Moreover, the Jones Act has made it a duty on the part of shipowner to exercise reasonable care.
A marine insurance contract is one of "Unberrimae Fidei," requiring the utmost good faith by both parties to the contract. This duty has been recognized since as early as 1766. This concept came about due to the fact that the insurer of lacks the practical means to verify the accuracy or sufficiency of the facts given to him while establishing a contract for insurance. The assured is required to disclose every fact within his knowledge that is material to the risk, even if no direct inquiry is made. Emberime Fedi allows a policy to be void by admission. The Courts have sated that there is no is no meeting of the minds regarding a material fact of the contract. Thus, there is no valid contract, and the "void at inception rule" works with Emberime Fedi to express that the policy language then should not exist. The importance of making a full discloser of the material facts when negotiating a marine insurance policy was shown in the case of Wilburn Boat where the Court pointed out that it was a firmly established principle of marine insurance that "a mistake or commission material to a marine risk, whether it be a willful or contractual, or a result form mistake, negligence or voluntary ignorance, avoids the policy."
Inherent vice has been defined as "anything which by reason of its own inherent qualities is lost without negligence by anyone" Greensheilds v. Stephens, 1908 1 K. B. 51 other definitions include "the natural behavior of the subject matter being what it is, in the circumstance in which it is carried." Much cargo is subject to inherent vice "Bananas," and it is the duty of the insurer to prove that the inherent vice was the proximate cause of the loss or damage if he seeks to avoid liability. The assured may be called upon to produce evidence that the damages did not arise solely form natural causes, and not from the negligence of the carrier.